Any animal requires a safe environment to live. Whether you have one cow or an entire herd of cattle, good cattle panels keep them out of trouble. As an animal owner, you want to protect your investment. But before you invest in a cattle panels fencing system, check out these 9 essential elements to make the best decision.
Cattle panels (Source: zmprzysieki)
Cattle Panels Material
The first thing to be considered for cattle panels fencing is the material. Animals get to “know” a cattle panel by appearance, site and “pain memory.” If it’s a strong or painful cattle panels, they avoid it. That’s why strong, tall, visible cattle panels are essential for receiving corrals and feedlots. Animals will challenge a cattle panel if they’re temperamental or spooked, and newly-weaned calves trying to get back to their mothers might test a cattle panel, too. Therefore, the key to a good cattle panel is to build it properly out of sturdy material.
Wood was the traditional choice for cattle panels fencing, often cut and milled right off the farm. But for early cattle panels builders, the heartwood of aged, hardwood trees were readily available, and this heartwood had longevity—often lasting 100 years with little attention. Today, this type of wood is unfortunately generally unavailable. The wood at lumberyards is typically softer wood that requires diligent upkeep. In humid climates, a wooden fence has a life expectancy of about 20 years with a regular maintenance schedule, including painting or staining every few years. Without dedicated maintenance, a wooden fence will suffer. Pressure-treated lumber will last for about seven years without painting or staining, but it carries a higher cost than untreated lumber. That’s the reason why wood is rarely used today for perimeter cattle panels of large pastures, its strength makes it a choice only for small pastures. That’s why the agriculturist had to look for the alternative material such as steel.
Cattle Panels Material: Steel
If you want good cattle panels, you should build them properly out of sturdy material which are not going to be susceptible to the weather. Therefore, the best choice for cattle panels material is steel. Traditionally an alloy of iron and carbon, steel stands as one of the most commonly used metals in the world across industries from construction to blacksmithing to sewing, specially agriculture.
Schematic stress / strain diagram for steel
Iron has a little more hardness than copper. The addition of carbon makes the steel tougher and more durable until a certain concentration is reached, at which point it becomes brittle. Rather than other metal materials, steels have many outstanding characteristics:
– High hardness, good tensile strength thanks to iron.
– Tougher and more durable, giving less strain for the same stress because of the addition of carbon.
– Good ductility.
– Low wear rate and good resist to corrosion.
– Steel can be used for larger spans with less depth.
– Easy to work with, easy to recycle.
Steels used in agriculture fall into three types: carbon-manganese steel; high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel; and high-strength quenched and tempered alloy steel. Nowadays, in cattle panel fencing project, we can easily find that the most common material is pre-galvanized zinc coated steel pipe, which is rust resistant to be able to resist the outdoor space.
Cattle Panels Material: Surface Treatment
Steel is naturally rustable. To protect the cattle panels for a longer period, the steel’s surface should be treated with chromate and zinc layer. The thicker the zinc and chromate layer are, the more resistant to corrosion and able to protect the inner layer for a longer period the cattle panels get. The surface treatment also ensures them to be shiny and visible, so that the cattle can easily be aware of the cattle panels.
Galvanising protects the underlying iron or steel in the following main ways:
– The zinc coating, when intact, prevents corrosive substances from reaching the underlying steel or iron.
– The zinc serves as a sacrificial anode so that even if the coating is scratched, the exposed steel will still be protected by the remaining zinc.
– The zinc protects iron by corroding first. For better results, application of chromates over zinc is also seen as an industrial trend.
Steel pipes used in cattle panels
Hot-dip galvanizing deposits a thick, robust layer of zinc iron alloys on the surface of a steel item. In the case of automobile bodies, where additional decorative coatings of paint will be applied, a thinner form of galvanizing is applied by electrogalvanizing. The hot-dip process generally does not reduce strength on a measurable scale, with the exception of high-strength steels (>1100 MPa) where hydrogen embrittlement can become a problem. This deficiency is a consideration affecting the manufacture of wire rope and other highly-stressed products.
The protection provided by hot-dip galvanizing is insufficient for products that will be constantly exposed to corrosive materials such as acids, including acid rain in outdoor uses. For these applications, more expensive stainless steel is preferred. Some nails made today are galvanized. Nonetheless, electroplating is used on its own for many outdoor applications because it is cheaper than hot-dip zinc coating and looks good when new. Another reason not to use hot-dip zinc coating is that for boltsand nuts of size M10 (US 3/8″) or smaller, the thick hot-dipped coating fills in too much of the threads, which reduces strength (because the dimension of the steel prior to coating must be reduced for the fasteners to fit together). This means that for cars, bicycles, and many other light mechanical products, the practical alternative to electroplating bolts and nuts is not hot-dip zinc coating, but making the fasteners from stainless steel
The size of crystallites in galvanized coatings is a visible and aesthetic feature, known as “spangle”. By varying the number of particles added for heterogeneous nucleation and the rate of cooling in a hot-dip process, the spangle can be adjusted from an apparently uniform surface (crystallites too small to see with the naked eye) to grains several centimetres wide. Visible crystallites are rare in other engineering materials, even though they are usually present.
Thermal diffusion galvanizing, or Sherardizing, provides a zinc diffusion coating on iron- or copper-based materials. Parts and zinc powder are tumbled in a sealed rotating drum. Around 300 °C (572 °F), zinc will diffuse into the substrate to form a zinc alloy. The advance surface preparation of the goods can be carried out by shot blasting. The process is also known as “dry galvanizing”, because no liquids are involved; this can avoid possible problems caused by hydrogen embrittlement. The dull-grey crystal structure of the zinc diffusion coating has a good adhesion to paint, powder coatings, or rubber. It is a preferred method for coating small, complex-shaped metals, and for smoothing rough surfaces on items formed with sintered metal.
Cattle Panels Frames
The frame obviously should depend on your animal size. Cattle panels for horse require tallest frames. Those for cows and bulls need slightly shorter ones. Then hog panels should be shorter than cow panels and the shortest ones are those for sheep and goats. Be noted that most sheep and goat panels will stop cattle. The inverse is not always true.
Steel cattle panels frames (Source: zmprzysieki)
Cattle Panels Frames: Height
|Cattle panels||Height (cm)|
|Horse panels||160 – 180|
|Cow panels||150 – 170|
|Hog panels||140 – 150|
|Goat panels||120 – 130|
Cattle Panels Frames: Width
The frame width should be long enough to minimize the installation process, but short enough to be easily-handled. Cattle panels for the small ones require closer vertical bars spaces than those for huge ones.
Cattle Panels Rails
About the structure of the cattle panels, you wouldn’t want to have the rails spaced too far apart because then the cattle could maybe go under it or go through it. Especially cattle panels for adult males requires closer rail spacing.
Cattle Panels Rails: Quantity
The common rail quantity for cattle fence is about 5 to 6. Cattle panels for mixed sizes (ewes with lambs, cows with calves, etc.) may need more rails than uniform animal groups.
Without doubt, goats are clever and creative escape artists. Therefore, it’s a wise choice to have high density of rails and for goat panels. Even though cattle panels for them are short resulting from their low height, the ideal rail quantity is still the same as others’.
Cattle Panels Rails: Arrangement
Different rails spacing arrangement for cattle panels (Source: brazzen)
The cattle panels need closer rail spacing in the below. The reason is in the low height, they tend to be stronger and easier to attack and escape from the cattle panels.
These kinds of panels are also suitable for mixed size cattle farm. They are effective for both tall and small animals.
Cattle Panels Pipes
Steel pipes are long, hollow tubes that are used for a variety of purposes. They are produced by two distinct methods which result in either a welded or seamless pipe. In both methods, raw steel is first cast into a more workable starting form. It is then made into a pipe by stretching the steel out into a seamless tube or forcing the edges together and sealing them with a weld. The first methods for producing steel pipe were introduced in the early 1800s, and they have steadily evolved into the modern processes we use today. Each year, millions of tons of steel pipe are produced. Its versatility makes it the most often used product produced by the steel industry.
Steel pipes are found in a variety of places. Since they are strong, they are used underground for transporting water and gas throughout cities and towns. They are also employed in construction to protect electrical wires. While steel pipes are strong, they can also be lightweight. This makes them perfect for use in cattle panels fencing.
Round steel pipes
Cattle Panels Pipes: Types
There are 3 common types of pipes for cattle panels: round pipes, oval pipes, square and rectangular pipes. Round and Oval steel are normally used for horizontal rails because they don’t have sharp corner and are able to contain high tenderness.
On the other hand, Square and Rectangular Steel Pipes are not recommended for horizontal rails because these types can cause cattle’s injuries when they attack the panels. Therefore, they are normally used for vertical posts because they are quite easier for construction.
Oval steel pipes
Cattle Panels Pipes: Sizes
Again, depending on the size of the cattle, the pipe sizes are varied from 40×40, 50×50, 60×60, 75×75, 90×90, 100×100, 115×42, 97×42, 75×40, 59x30mm, … Round pipes should be around OD 26 – 27mm.
Sizes make the visibility for the cattle panels. Visibility is the most important consideration when selecting fencing for some races such as horses, deer and antelope which move at high speed and have restricted color perception (compared to humans). They need to be able to see the cattle panels so they don’t run into it and become tangled in it. Wide-rails are ideal for sight lines, light weight and easy to install, and equally effective. This type of cattle panels is more portable in the long run, as well.
Cattle Panels Pipes: Thickness
Thickness from 0.8mm to 3.2mm are ideal for panels pipes. The stronger the cattle are, the thicker cattle panel pipes should be.
|Cattle panels||Thickness (mm)|
|Bulls panels||3.0 mm – 3.2 mm|
|Horse panels||1.8 mm – 3.0 mm|
|Cow panels||1.2 mm – 1.7 mm|
|Hog panels||1 mm – 1.3 mm|
|Goat panels||0.8 mm – 1 mm|
Cattle Panels Welded Parts
If you own a farm, you should learn how keen animals will be to breach the cattle panels line. It results from many reasons such as hunger, weaning, breeding, boredom.
– Hunger: Starved animals will eventually challenge most fences.
– Weaning: Strong physical barriers are needed to cope with separation.
– Breeding: Libido induces all creatures to challenge rules (and fences).
– Boredom: Animals in corrals, stalls and lots crave any “entertainment.”
– Gateways and handling yards: Animals often push each other into fences when being moved about.
– Fear and fright: Predators or loud noises can cause “prey” species (e.g. horses, goats, turkeys) to run in terror straight into, under, over or through any fence, no matter what fence design (netting, hi-tensile or woven wire).
U-lugs and L-lugs
In such cases, there comes the welded parts which are the essential parts of cattle panels. They are made to connect the panels together, so they become a closed fence. Stronger welded parts make stronger cattle panels. Welded parts should be tough and strong enough to endure the force from animals. If these parts are weak and easily-broken, even in only one panel, cattle can attack the cattle panels and escape.
There are some popular types of welded parts: U lug and L lugs, caps, panel base.
U-lugs are made in U-shape, which have one more foot than L-lugs. These lugs ought to be strongly welded to the panels in order to ensure their connection.
Normally along with the lugs, they use pins to link the panels. Pins should be made from stainless steel too. Stainless steel pins never wear out and will last a lifetime. These are perfect for use in a wet weather.
Cattle Panels Paint
Cattle Panels painted in white (Source: fastline)
Depending on the product mix, square feet per ton, and condition of the steel surface, galvanizing is often less expensive than galvanizing on an initial cost basis. However, as with any purchase, the lifetime costs should be considered when making a project decision on the corrosion prevention system to utilize. And, with galvanizing, the life-cycle cost, i.e. the cost per year to maintain, is almost always less than a paint system. Paint systems require maintenance, partial repainting, and full repainting several times over a 30-year project life. The costs can be staggering, making the decision to paint a costly one in the long run.
However, zinc and paint in combination (synergistic effect) produce a corrosion protection approximately 2X the sum of the corrosion protection that each alone would provide. Additionally, duplex coatings make repainting easy, excellent safety marking systems, and good color-coding. Painting over galvanized steel that has been in service for many years also extends the life of the zinc coating.
Cattle Panels Must-Have Features
There are a number of must-have feature that cattle panels should contain.
Cattle Panels Features: Durable
Good cattle panels must withstand harsh weather (Source: Tianjin Yuelei)
Of course, it is the durability of cattle panels that decides whether the products are good or not. Don’t sacrifice quality or durability to save money. Good cattle panels made from qualified material and modern technique last longer and will save your budget in the long-term because you don’t need to do the maintenance regularly such as repainting or replacing them by new ones. Since cattle panels are priced a little bit high, you should take it into consideration to choose which type of cattle panels. The higher quality the products are, the more expensive they get.
However, you should be well-aware that some supplier will cost you higher, but it doesn’t mean better quality. You should be conscious and ask the supplier information about the material and technique they use. You can even check their quality certification. If their steel pipes made base on JIS G standard, ASTM Standard or AS/NZS Standard, … you can be quite assured about the quality of this product. Moreover, the quality management systems should be certificated in ISO International Standard.
Cattle Panels Features: Pressure Treated
Strong cattle panels have better endurance against outdoor weather, so that they will last longer. In harsh environment like hot area such as Africa, Asia or snowy weather such as England, Russia, Australia, you should thoroughly choose the material to resist the difficulty of weather. Highly recommended type of steel is stainless steel with thicker pipes and big sizes, which can resist high pressure.
Cattle panels should also be resistant to high-temperature corrosion. The term “high-temperature corrosion” is not very accurate. It generally concerns “dry” corrosion, usually by gases, and what is high for one material may be low for another. However, in the case of stainless steels it can often be taken to mean 500 deg C and higher. Under these conditions, the surface alteration produced on stainless steel is usually fairly uniform. When a material is exposed to an oxidising atmosphere at high temperatures, an oxide layer usually forms on the surface. this layer will retard further oxidation. If the temperature of the material increases, the oxide growth rate will increase and the layer will finally crack and spall off when the scaling temperature is reached, thus losing its protective effect. Chromium-alloyed steel have better resistance to oxidation than carbon steels, due to the presence of chromium and iron oxides in an oxide layer.
Practically, various types of stainless steel are used across the whole temperature range from ambient to 1100 deg C. The choice of grade depends on several factors:
– Maximum temperature of operation
– Time at temperature, cyclic nature of process
– Type of atmosphere, oxidising, reducing, sulphidising, carburising.
– Strength requirement
Cattle Panels Features: Rustproof
Iron and steel rust when they come into contact with water and oxygen. They rust faster in salty water or acid rain. Chrome, on the other hand, does not corrode easily, because its surface is protected by a layer of chromatic oxide.
Iron and steel rust when they come into contact with water and oxygen. Both water and oxygen are needed for rusting to occur. Rusting is an oxidation reaction. The iron in steel reacts with water and oxygen to form hydrated iron(III) oxide, which we see as rust. This is the word equation for the reaction: Iron + water + oxygen → hydrated iron(III) oxide
Salt dissolved in water does not cause rusting, but it does speed it up, as does acid rain. Normal rain originally contains salt and acid, there for, in places where is rain regularly, you should require the manufacture to thicken the zinc-coated or chromatic layer to protect the inner.
Rustproof cattle panels (Source: commanderagquip)
Galvanized zinc coat will make the cattle panel resistant to rust. In outdoor space, they obviously should not be rustable and become weaker, then cattle can break and escape through them. Although galvanizing will inhibit attack of the underlying steel, rusting will be inevitable after some decades of exposure to weather, especially if exposed to acidic conditions. For example, corrugated iron sheet roofing will start to degrade within a few years despite the protective action of the zinc coating. Marine and salty environments also lower the lifetime of galvanized iron because the high electrical conductivity of sea water increases the rate of corrosion, primarily through converting the solid zinc to soluble zinc chloride which simply washes away. Galvanized car frames exemplify this; they corrode much faster in cold environments due to road salt, though they will last longer than unprotected steel.
Galvanized steel can last for many decades if other supplementary measures are maintained, such as paint coatings and additional sacrificial anodes. The rate of corrosion in non-salty environments is caused mainly by levels of sulfur dioxide in the air. In the most benign natural environments, such as inland low population areas, galvanized steel can last without rust for over 100 years.
Typically, galvanized piping rusts from the inside out, building up layers of plaque on the inside of the piping, causing both water pressure problems and eventual pipe failure. These plaques can flake off, leading to visible impurities in water and a slight metallic taste. The life expectancy of galvanized piping is about 70 years, but it may vary by region due to impurities in the water supply and the proximity of electrical grids for which interior piping acts as a pathway (the flow of electricity can accelerate chemical corrosion). Pipe longevity also depends on the thickness of zinc in the original galvanizing, which ranges on a scale from G40 to G210, and whether the pipe was galvanized on both the inside and outside, or just the outside.
Galvanized steel pipes are used in outdoor applications requiring steel’s superior mechanical strength. The use of galvanized pipes lends some truth to the urban myth that water purity in outdoor water faucets is lower, but the actual impurities (iron, zinc, calcium) are harmless.
Cattle Panels Features: Easily Assembled
Normally cattle panels are easy to assembly and the setting could be done by any farm-owner. However, the accessories such as pins still require skills for quicker work. The best cattle fence should include familiar accessories.
Cattle Panels Packing
Cattle Panels should be packed and labeled according to the distance and transportation. Great care should be taken to avoid any damage which might be caused during storage or transportation. In addition, clear labels are tagged on the outside of the packages for easy identification of the product I. D. and quality information.
The supplier must provide standard seaworthy packaging, usually the tubes are packed in bundles, wrapped by plastic bag, fixed by steel strip, and then placed in the container with steel wire fixing. All these packing detail are ensuring your goods safe to your hand during the delivery.
Every part of the cattle panels needs different packing:
– Packing of Cattle panels: plastic film, and wooden or metal pallet.
– Packing of Cattle panels’ pins: Every 50 pieces should be packed in a double layers strength woven bag.
– Packing of Cattle panels’ other accessories: small plastic bag.
Metal pallets are cost effective and safe for many reasons. You don’t have to replace them, metal is virtually unbreakable, and when using with hazardous waste material our galvanized metal finishing limits your worries of chemical contamination. Plastic film is also needed to protect the cattle panels form wears and tears.
Trusted Cattle Panels Supplier
Last but not least, let’s choose the best supplier for you to order cattle panels. A reputable supplier with strong customer base can ensure the cattle panels’ quality to a certain extent. Other than reputation, there are some elements that make the best cattle panels supplier.
Cattle Panels Supplier: Production capacity
Production capacity of the manufacturer decides how long it takes you to receive your cattle panels. The higher the production capacity is, the shorter time you have to wait. It depends on their factory size and technology they applied. In general, big manufacturer have higher production capacity.
In case you own a large farm with a herd of more than 100 cows, it’s essential to find a steel manufacturer which has production capacity of around 500MTS of pipes per day; 4500pcs cattle panel per month.
Production capacity of the manufacturer decides how long it takes you to receive your cattle panels.
Cattle Panels Supplier: Production process
The production is recommended to be closed from raw material to final product. If so, the manufacturer can completely manage the quality of the cattle panels. If they are not steelmakers and need to buy pipes from other supplier, they cannot be sure about the exact material and production process. What will happen if your cattle panels are rusty after 3 months being used and when you contact your supplier, they blame it for the steelmaker. Moreover, it results in higher price because the products’ prices include more transportation costs and benefits.
Cattle Panels Supplier: Technology
Each production stage should use separate and modern production techniques. Modern machinery and advanced technology applied will save energy and reduce production costs. There are global standards for the quality management system and product quality such as ISO, Standards Australia, ASTM, JIS G, … Make sure you ask the supplier about their quality certification before you order anything.
Modern machinery and advanced technology applied will save energy and reduce production costs.
Cattle Panels Supplier: Consultancy
Professional consultancy is very important when you merely know about cattle panels and steel. They will help you decide the material according to your place’s weather condition, which steel pipes to choose, height and width of the frame suitable for your cattle. They had better provide free consultancy and it is convenient with 24/7 service.
Cattle Panels Supplier: Professional staffs
If you are looking for a foreign supplier, they are needed to be familiar with exporting activities. You had better work with knowledgeable and dynamic staffs, which will push the process going much faster.
Cattle Panels Supplier: Delivery
The delivery time for cattle panels is about 30 – 60 days depending on the distance between you and the supplier.
Cattle Panels Supplier: After-sales service
After buying cattle panels, you still need assistance in setting and maintenance. You will be in trouble if your supplier disappears right after sales because there will be no one to guarantee the quality of the products and take responsibility when they are faulty.
Chinh Dai Steel’s Cattle Panels
Chinh Dai Steel is the professional supplier which specializes in producing cattle panels for Cows, Bulls, Lambs, Goats, Horses, Sheep, … Our products are popular in many international markets such as Australia, India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Laos, …
Read more about Chinh Dai’s Special Products.
Material: Pre-galvanized zinc coated steel pipe.
Pipe style: Round pipes, Oval pipes, square pipes, rectangular pipes
Pipe size (mm): 40×40, 50×50, 60×60, 75×75, 90×90, 100×100, 115×42, 97×42, 75×40, 59×30 …
Thickness: 0.8mm to 3.2mm
Color: Basic Zinc; Paint: Silver, White, Black..
Feature: Easily Assembled, Eco-friendly, Pressure Treated Timbers, Rodent Proof, Rot Proof, Tempered Glass, Waterproof…
Read more about Chinh Dai’s Steel Pipes.
Chinh Dai Steel’s high quality steel pipes
Quality management system: ISO 9001:2008 International Standard.
Product quality: JIS G standard, ASTM International Standard, AS/NZS International Standard.
Technology: seven technology steps, modern machinery and advanced technology are applied to save energy and reduce production costs.
Production process: closed from raw material to final product. Each production stage uses a separate and modern production line.
Production capacity: 500MTS of pipe per day; 4500pcs Cattle Panel per month.
Read more about Chinh Dai’s Quality Certification.
Chinh Dai Steel has ISO certificated Quality Management System
Product lifetime: more than 20 years.
Surface Treatment: chromated layer. The products are ensured to be shiny and beautifully patterned. The zinc and chromate layer is thick and resistant to corrosion and able to protect the inner layer for a longer period.
Payment: Letter of Credit, T/T.
Packing: Steel pallet for Cattle Panel.
Delivery time: 30 – 60 days after receiving the deposit (depends on distance).
Communication: 24/7 hotline, 24/7 email, fax, website. Your inquiry will be replied in 24 hours.
Consultancy: free 24/7 consultancy. Your private information and ideas of design will be protected.
Read more about Chinh Dai’s Exporting Channel.